As the disc degenerates from age or injury, the softer central portion can rupture (herniate) through the surrounding outer ring (annulus fibrosus). This abnormal rupture of the central portion of the disc is referred to as a disc herniation. Herniated discs can be caused by various reasons from age-related to accidental causes.
People with diabetes have an increased risk of developing a number of serious health conditions, including diabetic retinopathy. Consistent high levels of blood glucose, along with high blood pressure and high cholesterol, are the primary causes of retinopathy.
The pancreas is a long, flat gland in the upper abdomen that produces enzymes to aid digestion and hormones that regulate the body’s processing of glucose and insulin. Inflammation of the pancreas is known as pancreatitis. Cases of pancreatitis can be mild to severe, and are categorized as either acute or chronic.
Bartter syndrome is a group of rare conditions that affect the kidneys. There are five gene defects known to be associated with Bartter syndrome. The condition is caused by a defect in the kidneys' ability to reabsorb sodium. Those affected by Bartter syndrome lose too much sodium through the urine. This causes a rise in the level of the hormone aldosterone and makes the kidneys remove too much potassium from the body. Also, the condition results in abnormal acid balance in the blood, which causes too much calcium in the urine.
Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. While only 4% of skin cancers are melanoma, the disease accounts for about 75% of all skin cancer deaths and the American Cancer Society estimates that 73,870 new cases of melanoma will be diagnosed in the U.S. this year.
Joint hypermobility syndrome is a condition that allows joints to easily move beyond the normal range. While many find hypermobility to be an advantage of everyday life, there can be severe issues stemming from the syndrome and complications can hinder an individual’s quality of life.